References and Further Reading

Further Reading:

Collapsing volcanoes: the sleeping giants’ threat. A ‘easy to read’ article by by Thomas Shea and Benjamin Van Wyk de Vries. Find it here: .

Hazards from volcanic avalanches. An overview of volcanic collapses and their hazards by Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez, Lee Siebert and Lucia Capra. Find it here:



Belousov A., Belousova M., Voight B. (1999) Multiple edifice failures, debris avalanches and associated eruptions in the Holocene history of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Bulletin of Volcanology, 61: 324-342.

Capra L., Norini G., Groppelli G., Macías J. L., Arce J. L. (2008) Volcanic hazard zonation of the Nevado de Toluca Volcano, Mexico. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 176: 469-484.

Carrasco-Núñez G., Díaz-Castellón R., Siebert L., Hubbard B., Sheridan M. F., and Rodríguez S. R. (2006) Multiple edifice-collapse events in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt: the role of sloping substrate and implications for hazard assessment. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158: 151-176.

Carrasco-Núñez G., Siebert L., and Capra L. (2011) Hazards from volcanic avalanches.Horizons in Earth Science Research, 7: 199-227.

Francis, P., and Oppenheimer, C. (2003) Volcanoes- Second Edition. USA: Oxford University Press.

Glicken, H. (1996) Rockslide-debris avalanche of May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington. Open-file Report 96-677: pg. 90.

McGuire, W.J. (1996) Volcano instability: a review of contemporary theme. In: McGuire, W.J., Jones, A.P. & Neuberg, J. (eds) Volcano Instability on the Earth and Other Planets, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 110: 1-23.

Siebert L. (1984) Large volcanic debris avalanches: characteristics of source areas, deposits, and associated eruptions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 22: 163-197.

Siebert L., Simkin T. (2002) Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-3, (

Siebert L., Kimberly P., and Pullinger C. R. (2004) The voluminous Acajutla debris avalanche from Santa Ana volcano, western El Salvador, and comparison with other Central American edifice-failure events. In: Rose W I, Bommer J J, Lopez D L, Carr M J, Major J J (eds), Natural Hazards in El Salvador, Geological Society of America Special Papers, 375: 5-23

Sheridan M. F., Stinton A. J., Patra A., Pitman E. B., Bauer A., and Nichita C. C. (2005) Evaluating Titan2D mass-flow model using the 1963 Little Tahoma Peak avalanches, Mount Rainier, Washington. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 139: 89-102.

Siebert L., Alvarado G.E., Vallance J.W., van Wyk de Vries B. (2006) Large-volume volcanic edifice failures in Central America and associated hazards. In: Rose W I, Bluth G J S, Carr M J, Ewert J W, Patino L C, Vallance J W (eds), Volcanic hazards in Central America, Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap, 412: 1-26.

Siebert L., Simkin T., Kimberly P. (2010) Volcanoes of the World (3rd edition). Berkeley: Univ Calif Press, 551 p.

Tibaldi, A., Rust, D., Corazzato, C., and Merri, A. (2010) Setting the scene for self-destruction: From sheet intrusions to the structural evolution of rifted stratovolcanoes. Geosphere, 6(3): 189-210.

Voight, B. and Elsworth, D. (1997) Failure of volcano slopes. Geotechnique, 47(1): 1-31.

Ward S. N., and Day S. (2001) Cumbre Vieja volcano – Potential collapse and tsunami at La Palma, Canary Islands, Geophysical Research Letters, 28(17): 3397– 3400.

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